Mongolian grammar Rules

Note: Here we can give you Mongolian  grammar  basic rules. After you understand these main rules, you can speak Mongolian in good way. rules

  • Mongolian Cyrillic alphabet
  • Present continuous tense
  • To be or to have
  • Past tense
  • Expressing action in future
  • Present tense
  • To need or do not need
  • To like or love with negatives
  • Conditional sentence
  • Intention
  • Cases
  • Modal verbs: Can/may
  • That’s why, So, Therefore
  • Because
  • Comparative degree


  • Vowels

There are 13 vowels in Mongolian grammar as shown below

Vowel harmony

 Short  vowels Long vowelsDiphthongs



ю (у)  



ю (ү)  
Neutral иий 

Masculine and feminine vowels are not contained both in a word. For example,

будаа (rice), утас(phone), олуулаа(many of)

хүлээх(to wait), гэрэл(light), өгүүлбэр(sentence), цөөхүүлээ (few of)

But Neutral vowel can be used either masculine or feminine. For example,

Ажил(work), ширээ(table)

Rules of vowel harmony do not apply to loan or foreign words.

  • Consonants

There are also 20 consonant in Mongolian.

Classification /Rules Consonants Example

Vocalized consonants

Are needed vowels before or after

м, н, г, л, б, в, р



Non-vocalized consonants

Are can be used without a vowel

ц, ж, з, с, д, т, ш, ч, х




Special consonantsк, п, ф, щ




There are 2 sign letters in Cyrillic which are like: ь (soft sign), ъ (hard sign).

ь (soft sign) is used in two ways. First,  it separates е from feminine verbs stem ending with consonant. Example, хэлье (let`s say), өгье(let`s give). Second, it softens hard consonants. Example, морь(horse), хууль(law), хорь (twenty)

ъ (hard sign) only used to separate я and ё from masculine verb stem ending with a consonant. Example,

явъя(let`s go), уулзъя(let`s meet), бодъё(let`s think)


Verb-аарай (-ээрэй, –оорой,-өөрэй )

 Suffix identically expresses request and demand at the same time. it is not used for open request where the person was asked could have the chance to refuse. It is similarly used in polite commands.

For example:   Чигээрээ яваарай.                            Go straight.

Goodbye wishes are often express with this suffix.

For example:   Сайхан амраарай.                             Have a good rest.

Negative particle битгий comes before the verb to make negative command.

Битгий яваарай.                   Don`t go.

If the verb ends with long vowels or diphthongs (two vowels together), “г” is inserted between the vowels and the suffix.

For example:               Цонх хаагаарай.        Close the window.

The suffix is added according to vowel harmony rules.

а, у, я-аарай



Please ask.

Please go.

э, и, ү-ээрэй




Please say.

Please come.

Please wait.

О-ооройОроорой.Please come in.
Ө-өөрэйӨгөөрэй.Please give

Present continuous tense

-ж/ч байна. –аагүй (-ээгүй, -оогүй, өөгүй) байна.

This suffix expresses an action that is occurring at the present moment.

For example;

Би сүү ууж байна.                I am drinking milk.

-аагүй (-ээгүй, –оогүй, өөгүй) байна is used for negative form. Example;

Би ном уншаагүй байна.     I am not reading a book.

а, у, я-аагүй байна

Би асуугаагүй байна.

Тэр яваагүй байна.

I am not asking.

He is not going.

э, и, ү-ээгүй байна

Тэр хэлээгүй байна.

Тэд нар ирээгүй байна.

Бид нар хүлээгээгүй байна.

He is not telling.

They are not coming.

We are not waiting.

О-оогүй байнаТэр ороогүй байна.She is not coming in.
Ө-өөгүй байнаТэр өгөөгүй байна.He is not giving.

Another negative form is –хгүй байна which expresses the meaning that the person didn`t want to do the action. For example;

Тэр сүү уухгүй байна.                      He is not drinking milk.


In spoken language –ж байна changes to –жийн. For example;

Тэр явж байна sounds like тэр явжийн.

Be        Байх

Form of verbs бай express be or have.

Байна expresses meaning of a person or thing can be expressed at the moment or can be seen.

Байгаа is used the situation of a person or thing cannot be seen but it is known a person or thing is there.

Таны компьютэр хаана байгаа вэ?              Where is your computer?

Миний оффист байгаа.                                In my office.

Байдаг is used for location or a person or thing is always there.

Brooklyn bridge хаана байдаг вэ?                Where is Brooklyn bridge?

New yorkд байдаг.                                                     It is in New York.

When байна (байгаа, байдаг) is used to express have –д, т is added with subjects. For example:

Johnд монгол хэлний ном байгаа юу?        Does John have Mongolian langage book?

Johnд монгол хэлний ном байхгүй.                        No, He doesn`t.

Personal pronouns are changed to different form.For example:

Танд ном байна уу?                                      Do you have a book.

Надад ном байна.                                         I have a book.

Монголд Starbucks байдагуу?                      Does Starbucks

Монголд Starbucks байдаггүй.

Past tense

Past tense suffix –сан (-сэн, –сон, –сөн) is used to describe an action happened at some time in the past.

For example:

Би өчигдөр ажилласан.                    I worked yesterday.

Negative form is expressed with the suffix –аагүй (-ээгүй, –оогүй, –өөгүй) according to vowel harmony.

Би өчигдөр ажиллаагүй.                  I didn`t work yesterday.

а, у, я



Би асуусан.

Тэр яваагүй.

I asked.

He didn`t go.

э, и, ү



Тэр хэлсэн.

Тэд нар ирээгүй.

Бид нар хүлээгээгүй.

He said.

They didn`t come.

We didn`t wait.




Тэр орсон.

Тэр ороогүй.

She came in.

She didn`t come in.




Тэр өгсөн.

Тэр өгөөгүй.

He gave.

He didn`t give

Time related words (past)

Today                                      Өнөөдөр

Yesterday                                Өчигдөр

Day before yesterday              Уржигдар

Morning                                  Өглөө

Day or lunch time                   Өдөр

Evening                                   Орой

Afternoon                               үдээс хойш

Last week                                Өнгөрсөн 7 хоног

Last month                              Өнгөрсөн сар

Last year                                 Өнгөрсөн жил

2 days ago                               2 өдрийн өмнө

2 weeks ago                            2 долоо хоногийн өмнө

2 months ago                           2 сарын өмнө

2 years ago                              2 жилийн өмнө


Expressing action in the future.

-на (-нэ, -но, -нө) is the suffix that expresses an action that will take place in sometime in the future. For example:

Би маргааш ажиллана.                     I will work tomorrow.

Note:   In spoken language the vowels with -на (-нэ, -но, -нө) will be dropped according to the rule where single vowels are always dropped.

хгүй is used for negative form which added to the verb stem.

Би маргааш ажиллахгүй.

х will be added to make Interrogative form.

Та маргааш ажиллах уу?                  Will you work tomorrow?

а, у, я



Би асууна.

Тэр явахгүй.

I will ask.

He won`t go.

э, и, ү



Тэр хэлнэ.

Тэд нар ирэхгүй.

Бид нар хүлээхгүй.

He will say.

They won`t come.

We won`t wait.




Тэр орно.

Тэр орохгүй.

She will come in.

She won`t come in.




Тэр өгнө.

Тэр өгөхгүй.

He will give.

He won`t give.

Present tense

Present tense is used to talk about habitual, repeated or long term activity.

For example:

Би дандаа алхдаг.                  I always walk.

даг (-дэг, –дог, –дөг) is added to a verb stem according to the vowel harmony.

даггүй (-дэггүй, –доггүй, –дөггүй) is used for negative.

а, у, я



Би мартдаг.

Тэр асуудаггүй.

I forget.

He doesn`t ask.

э, и, ү



Тэр хэлдэг.

Тэд нар хийдэггүй.

Бид нар хүлээдэггүй.

He tells.

They don`t do it.

We don`t wait.




Тэр сонсдог.

Би сонсдоггүй.

She listens.

She doesn`t listens.




Тэр өгдөг.

Тэр өгдөггүй.

He gives.

He doesn`t give.

Шинэ үг

Дандаа                        always

Ер нь                           usually

Заримдаа                    sometimes

Хааяа                          rarely

Өдөр бүр                    everyday

Өдөрт 2 удаа              twice a week

Need (noun)

Хэрэгтэй хэрэггүй

This is an equivalent of need in English. –д/-т will be added to the subject when it is used with noun. For example:

Johnд ус хэрэгтэй.                 John needs water.






Бид нарБид нарт
Та нарТа нарт
Тэд нарТэд нарт

After words ends with

г, р, с, к





After words ends with other letters





Vowel is inserted after consonant б, д, з, т, х, ц, ж, ш, ч. For example:

Ээжид, найзад, ахад, эгчид, багшид

Need to (verb)

If a verb directly comes before хэрэгтэй/хэрэгггүй, the verb will always be in the infinitive form (-x will be added to make a verb infinitive form. For example; авах-to buy/take)

For example:

Би дэлгүүр явах хэрэгтэй.               I need to go to a shop.

Like/love (noun) Дуртай/дургүй    хайртай/хайргүй

This is an equivalent of like in English. –д/-т will be added to the object when it is used with noun. For example:

John хөлбөмбөгт дуртай.                 John likes football.

John хөлбөмбөгт дургүй.                 John doesn`t like football.

Би чамд хайртай.                                         I love you.

Би чамд хайргүй.                                         I don`t love you.

In spoken language, –нд will be added to an object if the object is food.

For example:

Би буузанд дуртай.               I like buuz.

Like to (verb)

If a verb directly comes before дуртай/дургүй, the verb will always be in the infinitive form (-x will be added to make a verb infinitive form in mongolian grammar. For example; авах-to buy/take)

For example:

Би дэлгүүр явах дуртай.                  I like to go shopping.

Want to + Verb

Verb-маар4 байна/-маар4гүй байна

This suffix expresses a desire that can be realized. It can be translated “I want to…” or “I would like to…” for example:

Би амармаар байна.                                     I want to rest.

Би амармааргүй байна.                               I don`t want to rest.

а, у, я

-маар байна

-мааргүй байна

Би асуумаар байна.

Тэр явмааргүй байна.

I want to ask.

He doesn`t want to go.

э, и, ү

-мээр байна

-мээргүй байна

Тэр хэлмээр байна.

Тэд нар ирмээргүй байна.

Бид нар хүлээмээргүй байна.

He wants to tell.

They don`t want to come.

We don`t want to wait.


-моор байна

-мооргүй байна

Тэр ормооргүй байна.

Тэр ормооргүй байна.

She wants to come in.

She doesn`t want to come in.


-мөөр байна

-мөөргүй байна

Тэр өгмөөр байна.

Тэр өгмөөргүй байна.

He wants to give.

He doesn`t want to give.

Conditional sentence

Verb-вал4, –бал4, бол           –хгүй бол

This suffix can be translated “if, when, in case” in English. For example:

Маргааш цас орвол сургууль байхгүй.      If it snows, there will be no school tomorrow.

Маргааш цас орохгүй бол бид нар сургууль явна.

When a verb ends with –в, -л, -м, бал4 will be added to a verb stem. Example:

Би дэлгүүр явбал энэ цайг авна.     If I go to a store, I will buy this tea.

Either бол or байвал are used when there is a adjective or noun. Example:

Маргааш хүйтэн байвал бид нар хөдөө явахгүй. We won`t go to country side if it is cold tomorrow.

Маргааш хүйтэн бол бид нар хөдөө явахгүй. We won`t go to country side if it is cold tomorrow.



Verb-я, е, ё

This ending express an intention or a wish as well as making suggesstion. The ending is only used with 1st person singular or plural. It is translated as “let me/let`s or I wish or I would like to” in English. Yet an exact translation depend on the context.

For example:

Дараа уулзъя.                                    See you later.

Би тусалъя.                            I will/let me help you.

Хоёр кофе авъя.                    I would like to get 2 coffees.

Хамт тоглоё.                          Let`s play together.

Баяр хүргэе.                           Congratulations.

Spelling rule;

A word containsVerb stem ends with voverls.Verb stem eds with consonant require ъ or ь before the ending.
а, у, яя      заая.ъя       явъя.
э, и, ө, үе       хийе.ье        хэлье.
Оё       тоглоё.ъё       оръё.

Objective case

Verb-ийг/ -ыг / -г

This suffix is used for specific object. For example:

Би ном уншсан.                     I read a book.

Би энэ номыг уншсан.         I read this book. (it is a specific book, not just a book. )






Бид нарБид нарыг
Та нарТа нарыг
Тэд нарТэд нарыг
-ыгFollowed by word including а, о, у, я, ё ending with consonant or short vowels.

машин          машиныг

хоол              хоолыг

ус                  усыг

хана              ханыг

ёс                   ёсыг


Followed by word including э, и, ө, ү, е ending with consonant or short vowels.

-After words ending ь, г, ж, ш, ч, к

хүн                хүнийг

ээж                ээжийг

багш              багшийг

жолооч          жолоочийг

сургууль        сургуулийг

Followed by words

аа, ээ, ий, оо, уу, өө, үү

-ай, эй, ой, уй, үй

-hidden –г

цай                    цайг

сүү                    сүүг

байцай               байцайг

дугуй                дугуйг

эмэгтэй            эмэгтэйг

Би багшийг хүлээж байна.              I am waiting for the teacher.

Genitive case

Noun –ын, -ийн, -н, -ны, -ний

This suffixes expresses possession and preposition. Example:

Энэ багшийн ном.

Би ширээний хажууд байна.

Би хоёр сарын өмнө ирсэн.

SuffixesRules Examples
-ынWords that includes а, у, о, я ends with consonant and short vowels

Номын хавтас  cover of a book

Найзын гэр      friends house


·         Words that includes э, и, ө, ү, е ends with consonant and short vowels

·         Words ends with

-ж, -ч, -ш, -г, -к, -ь, -и

Sometimes Г is inserted after long vowels

хичээлийн цаг   lesson time

Багшийн ном    teacher`s book

Сараагийн ном  Saraa`s book

-ныWords that includes а, у, о, я end with long vowels

Харандааны сав pencil case

Борооны үнэр smell of the rain

-ний Words that includes э, и, ө, ү, е ends with long vowels

Ширээний өнгө  color of the table

Хөдөөний хүн  country man

Words end with diphthongs

Нохойн нэр    name of the dog

Талбайн хэмжээ  size of the square

 Words that includes а, у, о, я ends with Н

Жоны ажил   John`s work

Оюутаны ном  student book

-ийWords that includes э, и, ө, ү, е ends with Н

Хүний бие   human body

Хэний ном    whose book

Dative case

Noun –д or –т

These suffixes are added to the stem of noun and cover the meaning of English prepositions at, on, in, to and for.

The questions used with this

(To) whom?                 Хэнд?

(To) what?                   Юунд?

Where?                        Хаана?

When?                         Хэзээ?

Pronouns in dative case






бид нарбид нарт
та нарта нарт
тэд нартэд нарт

Following verbs always need –д or –т with nouns before it. For example:

Та надад туслаарай.                                     Please help me.

Багш оюутнуудад энийг тайлбарласан.    The teacher explained it to the students.


Commutative case

Noun-тай (-тэй, –той)

This suffixes express ‘’have’’ in English. Example:

Би хоёр ахтай.           I have two brothers.

Negative form is expressed by the suffix –“гүй

Rules SuffixesExample
а, у, я-тай

ажилтай      have work

устай           have water

э, и, ө, ү-тэй

сүүтэй         have milk

мөнгөтэй     have money

о, ё-той

номтой        have book

охинтой       have daughter

тай (-тэй, –той) suffixes also express the meaning of “with” or “together”. Example:

Чи хэнтэй кино үзсэн бэ?                Who did you watch the movie with?

Би найзтайгаа үзсэн.                         I watched it with my friend.






бид нарбид нартай
та нарта нартай
тэд нартэд нартай


Directive case

руу, рүү, -луу, -лүү

These suffixes are added to the stem of noun and express the meaning of direction towards or to. Example:

Би сургуульруу явна.

Rules Suffixes Examples

After words include

а, у, я




After words include

э, и, ө, ү




After words include

а, у, я ending with “p




After words include

э, и, ө, ү ending with “p




бид нарбид нарлуу
та нарта нарлуу
тэд нартэд нарлуу

Instrumental case

-аар /-ээр, -оор, -өөр/

These suffixes are added to the stem of noun and express the meaning of by, through, with, at, as, from, during. Example:

Энийг хэдээр авсан бэ?

Арван мянгаар авсан.

Энийг юугаар хийсэн бэ?

Шоколадаар хийсэн.

Rules Suffixes Examples
а, у, я-аар



э, и, ү-ээргэрээр
о, ё-оор



бид нарбид нараар
та нарта нараар
тэд нартэд нараар


Ablative case

Noun –аас, –ээс, –оос, –өөс

These suffixes express the meaning of from, since, direction, location, time. Example;

Би гэрээс ирсэн.                      I came from home.

Би багшаас ном авсан.           I got a book from teacher.

Монголд арван сараас хүйтэрдэг.     It gets cold in Mongolia from October.

Бид нар 2006 оноос хойш энд амьдарч байна. We are living here since 2006.

Rules Suffixes Examples
а, у, я-аас



э, и, ү-ээсгэрээс
о, ё-оос



бид нарбид нараас
та нарта нараас
тэд нартэд нараас


Reflexive ending

-аа, (-ээ, -оо, -өө)

This ending used for an object that belongs to a subject in a sentence. -аа, (-ээ, -оо, -өө) added according to vowel harmony rule. Example:

Би номоо уншина.                            I`ll read my book.

Тэр номоо уншсан.                           He read his book.

Та нар номоо уншаарай.                   You (all) read your books.

Би нар номоо уншиж байна.            We are reading our books.

Тэд нар номоо уншдаг.                     They read their books.

-ийг/-ыг/-г ending can be dropped when -аа, (-ээ, -оо, -өө) ending is added to nouns. Example:

Тэр ээж(ийг)ээ дуудсан.                   He called his mom.


When, while

Verb-хад (-хэд, –ход, –хөд)

Person1-ийг (-ыг, –г) verb-хад4 person2 verb.

Багшийг хичээлээ дахиад тайлбарлахад би ойлгосон.     When the teacher explained the lesson again, I understood.

Бид нарыг сургуулиас гарахад бороо орж байсан.          When we left school, it was raining.

Тэд нарыг оройн хоолоо идэж байхад би очсон.             When they were eating I came there.

Verb-хдаа (-хдаа, –хдээ, –хдоо)

Person1-ийг (-ыг, –г) verb-хдаа4 verb.

Би дасгал хийхдээ их ус уудаг.                   When I was working out, I drink lots of water.

Би гэртээ байхдаа зурагт үздэг.                  When i am home, I watch TV.

Хүмүүс ирэхдээ хоол авчирдаг.                  When people come, they bring food.


This suffix expresses an action that happens before the main action. Example:

Би өглөө эрт босоод дасгал хийсэн.           I woke up early and did exercise.

Би оройн хоолоо идээд гэрийн даалгавар хийсэн. I had dinner and did my homework.

Spelling rule

а, у, я-аад

Тэр асуугаад хариул.

Би яваад ирсэн.

I forget.

He doesn`t ask.

э, и, ү-ээд

Би хэлээд тэр бичсэн.

Тэр ирээд би явсан.


He tells.

They don`t do it.

We don`t wait.


Тэр сонсоод бичсэн.

Би очоод ирсэн.

She listens.

She doesn`t listens.


Тэр өгөөд явсан.


He gives.

He doesn`t give.

Modal verbs  can/may

Verb-болно/болохгүй                       Verb-чадна/чадахгүй

These are the helping verbs that express a wide range of meaning.

Verb-болно/болохгүй-expresses permission in the present or future.

Би одоо явж болох уу?                     May/can I go now?

Чи одоо ярьж болно.                        You may/can talk now.

Verb-чадна/чадахгүй expresses ability in the present or future.

Тэр ярьж чадах уу?               Can he talk?

Тэр одоо ярьж чадна.                       He can/able to talk now.


…гэж хэл/сонс/унш/бод/асуу/ойлго/мэд

The conjuction verb expresses the meaning of that in English. For example,

Тэд нар надад маргааш ирнэ гэж хэлсэн.  They told me that they would come tomorrow.

Би чамайг бид нартай хамт явна гэж бодсон. I thought you would come with us.

Би түүнийг ногоонд дургүй гэж мэднэ.    I knew that she didn`t like vegetables.

 That`s why, so, therefore – Тийм учраас/тийм болохоор                    

Гадаа бороо орж байна. Тийм учраас би шүхрээ авах хэрэгтэй.

It is raining outside. So, I should take my umbrella.


 болохоор/учраас                             That`s why, so, therefore

гадаа бороо орж байгаа болохоор би шүхрээ авах хэрэгтэй.

It is raining outside. So, I should take my umbrella.

Because – Яагаад гэвэл 

Жишээ нь:

Би монгол хэл сурч байна. Яагаад гэвэл дараа жил би монголд амьдарна.

I am learning Mongolian because I will live in Mongolia next year.

Put the correct one: тийм учраас or яагаад гэвэл

Comparative  degree   Noun-аас (-ээс, –оос, –өөс)+adj

Америк Монголоос том.                  America is bigger than Mongolia.

Өнөөдөр өчигдрөөс халуун.            It is  hotter today than yesterday.


Арай(жоохон) or илүү express meaning of more. Example.,

Манай өрөө арай жижиг.                My room is bit smaller.

Энэ газар илүү том.                          This place is bigger.

Translate the sentences.

  1. This book is thicker than that book.
  2. My homework is more difficult that your homework
  3. She speaks faster than me.
  4. His hair is longer than mine.
  5. Mongolia is colder than Japan.
  6. Fish is more expensive than beef in Mongolia.
  7. Sometimes bus is faster than a taxi in UB.
  8. He is taller than me.
  9. She speaks English better than me.
  10. He is more intelligent than his brother.

Location words.

дээр                                   on

доор                                  under

дотор                                inside

хажууд                              next to

хооронд                            between

дунд                                  middle

хойно (ард, хойд талд)    behind/north

өмнө (урд, урд талд)        in front of/south

баруун талд                      right/west

зүүн талд                          left/east

эсрэг талд                         opposite side

дараа                                 after

S+O-н дээр(on), доор(on), дотор(inside)word байна. For example;

Дэвтэр ширээн дээр байна.                      The notebook is on the table.

Дэвтэр ширээн доор байна.                     The notebook is under the table.

Дэвтэр цүнхэн дотор байна.                    The notebook is inside the bag.

S+O-ийн/-ын location word байна. For example;

Миний цүнх сандлын хажууд байна.                             My bag is next to the chair.

Миний цүнх ширээ сандал хоёрын хооронд байна.      My bag is between the table and chair.

Purpose    (х гэж  to)

This is a suffix which expresses purpose.

Supporting sentence verbх гэж main sentence. Example:

Би хоол идэх гэж ресторан явсан.                          I went the restaurant to eat.

Тэр дасгал хийх гэж gym явсан.                              He went to the gym to do workout.

Тэр яах гэж монголд ирсэн бэ?                               Why did he came to Mongolia?                     

Тэр говь үзэх гэж монголд ирсэн.                          He came to Mongolia to see Gobi.                


Grammar                   causative

Causative used when someone has someone to do something. It can mean cause, get, let, have in English. Those suffixes used to make causative.

After consonant and short vowels                  –уул, –үүл                               явуул, ирүүл

After long vowels and diphthongs                 –лга, –лгэ, –лго, –лгө             заалга, нээлгэ

Certain verbs use the following suffixes

After use –л, -р, -с, -д                                     –га, –гэ, –го, –гө                      дуусга, босго

Used in only some verbs                                 –аа, –ээ, –оо, –өө                      өнгөрөө, гомдоо       

Common verbs which has –га4 or –аа4

Finish                          дуус                            дуусга

Turn on                        ас                                 асаа

Turn off                       унтар                          унтраа

Return                         буц                              буцаа

Pass                             өнгөр                          өнгөрөө

Burn                            шат                              шатаа

Wake up                      сэр                               сэрээ

Stop                             зогс                             зогсоо

Rest                             амар                            амраа

In the causative sentence the object needs –аар4, -ыг, ийг or –д, -т

For example:

Би Жоноор машинаа засуулсан.                 I let/asked/got/caused/had John to fix my car.

Багш надаар ном уншуулсан.                     Teacher let/asked/got/caused/had me to read book.

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